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  • Writer's pictureDavid Kauffman

Terms to Identify Student Groups

In my last entry, I wrote about the importance of words, particularly the labels we use to identify students. Although "emergent bilingual" is not a perfect term, it is assets-based and thus a major improvement over the deficit-based terms previously used.


In this entry, I am going to share the various terms I currently use to identify students in relation to language learning. This is a constantly evolving list, as I am always looking for better terms.

I am eager to hear what terms others have adopted and how you use them. Please comment and share.


* For a discussion of the fluid nature of the emergent bilingual (English learner) subgroup, see pages 8-9 of Janie Tankard Carnock’s report Seeing Clearly: Five Lenses to Bring English Learner Data into Focus.


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